Frontier Workers

Briefing for EU citizens: less common EUSS applications: Frontier workers, prisoners, extended family members by Charlotte Rubin and Chris Desira

In order to stay in the UK lawfully after the end of the transition period, all EU citizens in the UK have to apply for status under the EU Settlement Scheme (EUSS). Under the Scheme, EU citizens will be given either pre-settled or settled status. For an applicant to the EU Settlement Scheme to receive either pre-settled or settled status, they will have to prove three key things: their identity, their suitability, and a period of continuous residence in the UK.

For most applicants, this will be relatively straightforward. This briefing focuses on three groups of applicants for whom proving these things will be slightly more complicated: frontier workers, people with a criminal sentence, and extended family members. Of course, many other applicants will find the EUSS confusing or hard to navigate, and numerous other vulnerable groups in society have been identified as at risk of failing to secure their rights. This briefing focuses on specific issues with these three groups to break things up a little.

The Withdrawal Agreement between the EU and the UK provides that frontier workers must receive documents certifying their status as soon as possible, so that they are not prevented from exercising their rights after the end of the transition period, and can easily demonstrate proof of those rights at the border. That is why the government is launching a frontier worker permit scheme on 10 December, so that frontier workers can make free applications to receive such a document. Although this is a welcome development, the scheme seems to be cutting it quite short as it opens a mere three weeks before the end of the transition period, with very little information available as to the qualifying criteria and precise application process. Surprisingly, there seems to be more information available for family members of frontier workers than for frontier workers themselves, as there seems to be little certainty about what exactly is required of them

As for EU citizens without a right of permanent residence whose residence is interrupted by a period of imprisonment, the Withdrawal Agreement states that the “conduct” of these citizens may have an effect on their application under the Scheme. “Conduct” here relates to actions taken by the affected citizen, rather than the outcome of the action such as a sentence of imprisonment, meaning it is not the time or severity of the prison sentence but of the conduct which is important in assessing the relevant citizen’s eligibility.

Appendix EU clearly states that continuous qualifying period cannot include a period of imprisonment. In fact, EU law stipulates that periods of imprisonment in the host Member State interrupt the continuity of residence required by Article 16(2) of the Free Movement Directive for the purpose of acquiring a right of permanent residence.

There will be situations where the conduct of the citizen is committed before the end of the transition period, and the conduct is not be serious enough to result in their removal from the UK, but their prison sentence will conclude after the end of the transition period. If this is the case, the only route to status under the EU Settlement Scheme would be if the applicant already had settled status before he committed the offence. If he had been in the UK for less than five years when the offence was committed, and does not have settled status, he will not be able to acquire it. A citizen cannot link periods residence in the member state that are dissected by a term of imprisonment which in this example, began before the end of the transition period.

The result is that a citizen who was in prison during the transition period, but does not meet the threshold for removal from the UK, cannot begin a continuous qualifying period to obtain EUSS status. They are highly unlikely to be able to obtain any other immigration status due to the restrictive nature of UK immigration law and would consequently face removal on the basis that they do not have any lawful residence after 30 June 2020.

Lastly, concerning extended family members, Appendix EU requires that durable partners and dependent relatives apply to the EUSS with a valid “relevant document". The definition of a relevant document is a document issued for under the EEA Regulations. It can be a family permit, a residence card or a permanent residence card. Important to note is that the relevant document must be valid (i.e. not expired or revoked), meaning that an extended family member who has been issued a document which has now expired is unable to apply to the EUSS and will receive an automatic refusal of status should they submit an application. In effect, this raises the financial bar for durable partners of EU citizens, as they are required to make a second application under the EEA Regulations to receive a valid relevant document and then make a third application for EUSS status. The application fee here is 65 pounds.

This fee is entirely avoidable. In fact, when an extended family member applies to the EUSS, the process assesses whether the family relationship continues to exist (or did for a 5 year period in the past). Therefore, it is available to the Home Office to assess the continuing family relationship of an extended family member applicant through the EUSS process, even where their relevant document has expired. The Home Office approach puts a disproportionate burden on these applicants not only financially, but also practically, as they have to evidence and re-evidence their family relationships which could be considered detrimental to the rights of their sponsoring EU citizens.

Once family members of EU nationals succeed in their application and get status under the Settlement Scheme, they are issued a physical document to prove their right to residency in the UK. This physical document is a privilege not granted to EU citizens, meaning that in practice, durable partners receive physical proof of their status when the EU citizens on whose application they depend do not.

If you require any advice on the EUSS as a member of one of these three vulnerable groups of EU citizens or otherwise, do not hesitate to contact us for advice.

If you need assistance you can contact us here, call us on 020 8142 8211 or send us a question on WhatsApp.


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